Henry Pym (Ant-Man, Giant-man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

Henry Pym

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Henry Pym
Hank pym 1 Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)
Henry Pym as Yellowjacket
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Tales to Astonish #27 (Jan. 1962)
Created by Stan Lee
Larry Lieber
Jack Kirby
In-story information
Alter ego Henry Jonathan “Hank” Pym
Species Human (empowered)
Team affiliations Avengers
West Coast Avengers
Mighty Avengers
Secret Defenders
Partnerships Wasp
Notable aliases Ant-Man, Giant-Man, Goliath, Yellowjacket, Doctor Pym, The Wasp
Abilities Intellect
Bio-energy projection

Dr. Henry “Hank” Pym is a fictional character that appears in publications published by Marvel Comics. Created by editor and plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber and penciler Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Tales to Astonish #27 (Jan. 1962).

Pym’s character, which debuted in a standalone science-fiction anthology story, returned several issues later as the superhero Ant-Man, with the power to shrink to the size of an insect. Pym was later given a crime-fighting partner, Janet van Dyne, the Wasp. The two would fall in love and eventually marry. Pym would later assume other superhero identities, from the size-changing Giant-Man to Goliath, to another insect-themed character, Yellowjacket, and, in early 2009, the Wasp.

The character of Henry Pym has featured in other Marvel-endorsed products such as animated films; arcade and video games; television series and merchandise such as action figures and trading cards.


[edit] Publication history

180px TTA 35 Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

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Tales to Astonish #35 (Sept. 1962): Pym’s costumed debut as Ant-Man. Cover art by Jack Kirby and Dick Ayers.

Henry “Hank” Jonathan Pym debuted in a standalone story in the science fiction/fantasy anthology Tales to Astonish #27 (Jan. 1962), in the seven-page cover story, “The Man in the Ant Hill,” about a scientist who tests a shrinking technology on himself. Eight issues later, the character and the technology were recruited for a new costumed-superhero feature, “Ant-Man,” in the 13-page, three-chapter story “Return of the Ant-Man/An Army of Ants/The Ant-Man’s Revenge” in Tales to Astonish #35 (Sept. 1962). Both issues’ stories were by the same creative team of editor-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, penciler Jack Kirby, and inker Dick Ayers. Lee in 2008 described his reasoning for the character’s atypical genesis: “I did one comic book called ‘The Man in the Ant Hill’ about a guy who shrunk down and there were ants or bees chasing him. That sold so well that I thought making him into a superhero might be fun”.[1]

Joining Pym in issue #44 (June 1963) was his socialite girlfriend and laboratory assistant, Janet van Dyne, who adopted the identity of superheroine the Wasp and co-starred in Pym’s subsequent Tales to Astonish stories. She also later served as a framing-sequence host for anthological science-fiction backup stories in the comic. Ant-Man and the Wasp went on to become founding members of the superhero group the Avengers in that namesake comic-book series that debuted in 1963.

Pym adopted an alternate identity as the 12-foot-tall Giant-Man in Tales to Astonish #49 (Nov. 1963). He and the Wasp continued to star in the feature “Giant-Man” through #69 (July 1965), while simultaneously appearing in The Avengers through #15 (April 1965), after which the couple temporarily left the team.

Pym rejoined the Avengers and adopted the new identity of Goliath in The Avengers #28 (May 1966). Gradually falling to mental duress, he adopted a fourth superhero identity, Yellowjacket, in #59 (Dec. 1968). Pym later briefly returned as Ant-Man, and was featured as the main character in the first volume of Marvel Feature.[2] Temporarily eschewing a costumed persona, Pym joined the team the West Coast Avengers as a scientist and inventor, known simply as Doctor Pym, in West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #21 (June 1987). He returned to the Avengers as the superhero Giant-Man in The Avengers #368 (Nov. 1993). When the team disbanded after a series of tragedies, Pym, using the Yellowjacket persona again, took a leave of absence beginning with vol. 3, #85 (Sept. 2004). The issue was alternately numbered #500 (of the first volume) in an anniversary return to the original series numbering.

[edit] Fictional character biography

180px TalesToAstonish56 Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

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Tales to Astonish #56 (June 1964). Pym in his first Giant-Man uniform. Cover art by Jack Kirby and Chic Stone.

Henry Pym is a biochemist initially married to a Hungarian woman, Maria Trovaya, who is later killed by the Hungarian Secret Police. Shortly afterward, Pym discovers what he calls “Pym particles,” a rare group of subatomic particles from which he formulates a size-altering formula. Testing the solution on himself, Pym discovers that one type of particles shrinks objects while the other restores an object to its natural size. Pym shrinks himself to the size of an insect and has a dangerous encounter with ants from a nearby anthill.[3] After restoring himself and undertaking an exhaustive study of ants, Pym constructs a cybernetic helmet that allows him to communicate with and control ants. Pym designs a costume and reinvents himself as the superhero Ant-Man.[4] On his first adventure, Pym defeats several KGB agents trying to steal his formula for an anti-radiation gas.

Pym is later contacted by Dr. Vernon Van Dyne, who asks for Pym’s help in contacting aliens. Pym refuses, but becomes attracted to Vernon’s daughter, Janet. Vernon Van Dyne is later killed by an alien outlaw and Janet asks for Hank’s help to avenge his death. Pym then reveals his secret identity to her, and uses Pym particles to graft wasp wings beneath her shoulders, which appear when Janet shrinks. Janet assumes the alias of the Wasp, and together they track down and defeat her father’s killer.[5] The two later develop a romantic relationship.[6]

[edit] Avengers founder

180px A 59 Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

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Avengers #59 (Dec. 1968). Pym’s debut as Yellowjacket, with a imagined scene of Pym standing over himself in the second Goliath uniform. Cover art by John Buscema and George Klein

Pym, together with the Wasp, Iron Man, Thor and the Hulk, goes on to found the superhero team the Avengers.[7] Shortly after the group’s formation, Pym develops a gas and later tablets that can increase his size, and uses them to become Giant-Man[8] and later Goliath.[9] Unfortunately, this change is driven by an inferiority complex and feelings of inadequacy when comparing his powers to those of Thor or Iron Man.[10] The situation is exacerbated when Pym finds himself trapped in giant form for a time.[11] Pym then suffers a serious setback when he creates the robot Ultron,[12] which becomes sentient and plots to kill Pym and the rest of the human race.

Pym then has a mental breakdown caused by some Schizophrenia-inducing chemicals. Suffering from a personality crisis, he reappears at Avengers Mansion as the cocky “Yellowjacket”, claiming to have disposed of Pym. Of all the Avengers, only Jan realizes it is in fact Pym, and decides to take advantage of his offer of marriage.[13] Pym recovers shortly afterwards.[14]

[edit] Downfall and redemption

Pym, now using the Yellowjacket identity, and his new wife return to the Avengers briefly before taking a leave of absence so that he can pursue full-time research. The Avengers encounter Pym at the start of the Kree-Skrull War, when Pym has been reverted to a caveman-like state by the alien Kree.[15] After Pym is restored to normal, he and Janet retire from the Avengers, although Pym returns briefly as Ant-Man to repair the android Avenger the Vision.[16]

Following two adventures alongside the Defenders,[17] Pym returns to the Avengers (again as Yellowjacket) at the insistence of his wife, but is now uncomfortable in his role as a super-hero. Pym’s vulnerability is exploited by Ultron, who brainwashes him—causing Pym to regress back to his original Ant-Man costume and personality, forgetting all of his subsequent adventures with the team. As Ant-Man, Pym attacks the Avengers until stopped by Janet.[18] After Ultron’s brainwashing is reversed, Pym re-joins the team as Yellowjacket until he is forced out when the roster is restructured by government liaison Henry Peter Gyrich.[19]

Pym and the Wasp later rejoin the Avengers, but by this stage Pym has begun to mentally deteriorate and is verbally abusive towards Janet. On their first mission after rejoining the Avengers, Pym attacks a foe who had ceased fighting. Team leader Captain America brings charges against Pym, and he is suspended from Avengers duty pending the verdict of a court-martial. At this point, Pym suffers a complete breakdown, and becomes extremely paranoid and violent. Pym then concocts a plan to salvage his credibility by building a robot and programming it to launch an attack on the Avengers at his court-martial. Planning to expose the robot’s weakness at the critical moment, Pym hopes to regain his good standing with the Avengers. Janet, however, discovers the plan and begs Pym to stop, at which point he strikes her. Although the robot does attack the Avengers as planned, Pym is unable to stop it and it is the Wasp that uses the critical flaw in the design to defeat it. Pym is subsequently expelled from the Avengers,[20] and Janet divorces him.[21]

180px Goliath Pym Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

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The Avengers #28 (May 1966). Henry Pym’s first appearance as Goliath. Cover art by Jack Kirby and Frank Giacoia

Left penniless and friendless in the wake of his disgrace, Pym is then manipulated by his old foe Egghead (believed at the time to be dead), who tricks him into stealing the national reserve of the metal adamantium. Upon leaving the scene of the crime, Pym is confronted by the Avengers, whom he had anonymously summoned, but now is forced to fight. Pym is defeated and blamed for the theft, as Egghead skillfully erases all evidence of his involvement. Blaming a supposedly dead villain is taken as further proof of Pym’s madness and he is incarcerated.[22] During Pym’s imprisonment, he suffers another setback when Janet begins a relationship with Tony Stark, the alter ego of fellow Avenger Iron Man.[23]

Still not fully satisfied with his victory over his archenemy, Egghead then reforms the supervillain team the Masters of Evil and kidnaps Pym at his trial, creating the impression that Pym himself staged his own escape. Egghead then plans to use Pym in another of his schemes, but is tricked when Pym uses Egghead’s own apparatus to defeat the entire roster of the Masters of Evil. In a final act of desperation, Egghead attempts to kill Pym, but is stopped and accidentally killed by the Avenger Hawkeye, whose brother had been murdered by Egghead years ago. With the real perpetrator exposed, Pym is cleared of all charges. After an emotional farewell with Janet and his former team mates at Avengers Mansion, Pym leaves to devote his time to full time research.[24]

[edit] Return to the Avengers

Pym later rejoins the West Coast Avengers, first in an advisory role[25] and then as a full-fledged member in a non-costumed capacity,[26] and later rejoining the East Coast team as Giant-Man.[27] During this period, Pym begins a short relationship with Tigra, who quickly ends it.[28] After a verbal taunting by his old foe, Whirlwind, Pym contemplates suicide, but is stopped by the heroine Firebird at the last moment.[29] Pym and Jan became friends again,[30] and eventually resume a romantic relationship.[31] The pair, together with many of the other Avengers, apparently sacrifice themselves to stop the villain Onslaught, but actually exist in a pocket universe for a year before returning to the mainstream universe.[32]

Pym makes a valuable contribution once the team reforms,[33] and as Giant-Man he scores victories over both Imus Champion[34] and his flawed creation Ultron.[35] While in his Giant-Man guise, both he and the Wasp are plucked out of the timestream by the being Immortus, and team up with several Avengers from various periods in the team’s history, including the mentally unbalanced Yellowjacket that the Avengers first encountered.[10] Pym’s psychological problems worsen during an encounter with the sorcerer Kulan Gath, as he is temporarily transformed complete with a Yellowjacket-style persona. The subsequent attempt to break the spell results in another Henry Pym being created from the extradimensional bio-mass Pym used to grow, with each Pym reflecting an aspect of his personality—Giant-Man the thoughtful, scientific aspect and Yellowjacket the impulsive aspect. During the events of the Kang Dynasty,[36] the two Pyms began to deteriorate from being apart, but were restored when the Wasp helps them realize that the two need each other. The integration of their personalities enables Pym to resolve his past problems, and he decides to adopt his Yellowjacket costume once more.[37] After the events of Avengers Disassembled and the disbanding of the team, Pym and Janet left the team to re-kindle their relationship in England.[38]

[edit] Secret Invasion

200px Newwasp Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

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Henry Pym as the new Wasp. Page from Secret Invasion: Requiem (2009). Art by Khoi Pham.

While in England, Hank and Janet’s relationship fails and Hank is replaced by a Super-Skrull.[39] This Skrull Hank Pym, along with the Wasp and a number of other metahumans, are transported to “Battle World” by a god-like being to combat each other[40] before being involved in what became known as the superhero Civil War between those agreeing to the government’s new superhuman-registration program and those against, Pym, adopting the Yellowjacket persona, with Reed Richards (Mr. Fantastic of the Fantastic Four) and Tony Stark (Iron Man), creates a cybernetic clone of Thor to help in the war against the anti-registration heroes that later kills Bill Foster (who had taken up Pym’s former identity as Goliath) in battle.[41] Pym is kidnapped by Young Avengers member Hulkling, using his shapeshifter powers to impersonate Pym and free several captive anti-registration heroes.[42] At the conclusion of the Civil War, Pym is named “Man of the Year” by Time magazine for his role.

This Pym, a Skrull named Criti Noll,[43] becomes one of the chief administrators at Camp Hammond, a U.S. military base in Stamford, Connecticut for the training of registered superheroes in the government program the Initiative, with the secret Skrull plan to place a Skrull in every state initiative team. During this time, the still Skrullian Pym and the Wasp officially end their attempt at reconciliation, and Pym becomes involved in a romantic relationship with the superheroine Tigra. The Skrull Yellowjacket evades being vaporized in an explosion[44] and an attack from superbeing KIA[45] by using Skrull powers[43] and convinces the other heroes that he survives by rapidly shrinking to subatomic size.[46]

The Skrull Pym is finally defeated by the Crusader in combat.[47] After a final battle between Earth’s heroes and the Skrulls, the real Henry Pym is found with other “replaced” heroes in a Skrull vessel. When the Wasp is killed in the final battle,[48] Henry Pym assumes her title as a tribute to his dead partner.[49] Pym appears as the new Wasp as a member of the new Mighty Avengers.[50] Despite his own misgivings, Pym is eventually convinced to become the leader the new team.[51]

[edit] Powers and abilities

180px Pym civilian Henry Pym (Ant Man, Giant man, Goliath, Yellowjacket)

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Doctor Pym. Detail, cover of West Coast Avengers #21 (vol. 2, June 1987). Art by Al Milgrom and Joe Sinnott

Dr. Hank Pym is a scientific genius of the highest order with expertise in the fields of quantum physics, robotics/cybernetics, artificial intelligence, biochemistry, and even entomology; he possesses a Ph.D in biochemistry and is one of the world’s foremost biochemists. Notable achievements in robotics include the invention of Ultron and occasional repair of the android Vision. Pym also discovered the self-titled subatomic “Pym particles” that enable mass to be shunted or gained from an alternate dimension, thus changing the size of himself or other beings or objects.

Pym has experimented with size-shifting for much of his adult life, initially via ingested capsules and later via particle-filled gas. Enough exposure to the particles eventually allows Pym to change size at will, as well as mentally generate Pym particles to change the sizes of other living beings or inanimate objects. Pym retains his normal strength when “ant” size, and possesses greatly increased strength and stamina when in “giant” form, courtesy of the increased mass. He is able to attain a stated maximum height of roughly 100 feet (30 m) and a minimum height of 1/2 inch. Pym’s costume is synthetic stretch fabric composed of unstable molecules and automatically adapts to his shifting sizes.

He also uses a variety of aids, including a cybernetic helmet for achieving rudimentary communication with ants and other higher insects and to control their minds (as Ant-Man) and artificial wings and bio-blasters called “stingers” built into his gloves (as Yellowjacket). Pym also carries a variety of weaponry, provisions, and scientific instruments, which are shrunken to the size of microchips and stored in the pockets of his uniform.

[edit] Successors

The “Pym particles” that enable his size changing abilities have also been utilized by other individuals, many of whom have adopted variants of Pym’s previous costumed identities.

  • Janet Van Dyne – as the Wasp from Tales to Astonish #44 (June 1963) through Secret Invasion #8 (Jan. 2009).
  • Clint Barton – as Goliath from The Avengers #63 (April 1969) through The Avengers #97 (Mar. 1972), as a one off in West Coast Avengers #26 (November 1987), and from The Avengers #345 (March 1992) through Captain America #401 (June 1992).
  • Bill Foster – as Black Goliath from Power Man #24 (April 1975) through The Defenders #65 (November 1978), as Giant-Man from Marvel-Two-In-One #55 (Sep. 1979) through The Avengers #381 (Dec. 1994), and as Goliath from Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #2 (Jan. 2006) through Civil War #4 (Oct. 2006).
  • Scott Lang – as Ant-Man from Marvel Premiere #47 (Apr. 1979) through The Avengers #500 (Sept. 2004).
  • Erik Josten – as Goliath from Iron Man Annual #7 (Oct. 1984) through Thunderbolts #1 (April 1997) and as Atlas from Thunderbolts #1
  • Rita DeMara – as Yellowjacket from The Avengers #264 (Feb. 1986) through Force Works #17 (Nov. 1995)
  • Cassie Lang – as Stature from Young Avengers #6 (Sept. 2005)
  • Eric O’Grady – as Ant-Man from The Irredeemable Ant-Man #1 (Sep. 2006) on.
  • Tom Foster – as Goliath from Black Panther vol. 3 #23 (Feb. 2007) on.

[edit] Other versions

[edit] Earth X

In the alternate future of Earth X, Pym is one of the Avengers killed in battle against the Absorbing Man.[52]

[edit] Fantastic Four: The End

In this alternate future, Pym in his Goliath costume, and has two children who aspire to become superheroes, calling themselves Beetle Boy and the Wasp.[53]

[edit] MC2

In the MC2 alternate universe, Hank and Janet are survived by their children Hope Pym and Henry Pym Jr., who become the supervillains Red Queen and Big Man respectively.[54]

[edit] Marvel Zombies

On Earth-2149, the reality of the Marvel Zombies, Pym uses his Giant-Man identity and is one of the many heroes infected and transformed into a flesh-eating zombie.[55]

[edit] Ultimate Henry Pym

In the Ultimate Marvel continuity, Henry “Hank” Pym is a brilliant but mentally fragile scientist who takes Prozac and is married to Janet Pym, a molecular biologist; unlike the main continuity Pym, whose abusive behavior erupted once during a nervous breakdown and never again, this Pym has periodically abused Janet for years. Pym is chosen to work on the “Super Soldier Project” for S.H.I.E.L.D. under Nick Fury. He gains his powers after experimenting on the blood of his wife, who is a mutant, and as the superhero “Giant-Man” is able to shrink to the size of an ant and grow to a maximum height of 59 feet (18 m) and 11 inches (60 feet being the point where the human body cannot support its own mass).[56] After Hank’s abuse of his wife and subsequent discharge from the Ultimates, Giant-Man joins the Defenders[57] then later joins the Liberators. After their defeat, however, Pym claims that he infiltrated the group in order to expose a traitor among the Ultimates, but is jailed.[58] He eventually returns to the Ultimates in the identity of Yellowjacket.[59]

[edit] Other media

[edit] Television

[edit] Film

[edit] Video game

[edit] Cards and miniature games

  • Pym appears in his various guises in the HeroClix miniatures game and in the Vs. System card game.

[edit] Toys

  • In 1999, a toy line was produced for the Avengers: United They Stand cartoon series, with an action figure of Hank as Ant-Man released.
  • Toy Biz released a figure of Hank Pym in his Giant-Man costume in an Original Avengers box set that also included a miniature Ant-Man figure.
  • Toy Biz released the same figure in Series 4 of their Marvel Legends toyline as a repaint of Hank in his Goliath outfit. The figure also came included with miniature Ant-Man and Wasp figures.
  • In 2006, an exclusive series of Marvel Legends figures was released to Wal*Mart stores in the United States. This series required the purchasing 10 of the figures in the assortment to complete the “Build-A-Figure” toy of Giant-Man.
  • In 2007, after Hasbro took over Marvel Legends, a Hank Pym in his Yellowjacket persona was released with the second series. A mini Yellowjacket had previously been included with Wonder Man in the ToyBiz Legendary Riders series.

[edit] Bibliography

  • Tales to Astonish #27, 35-69
  • Avengers #1-16, 26-75, 90-93, 99-100, 137-182, 189-242, 292-338, 345-402, 500-502, Annual #1-3, 9-10, 15-16, 18-19, 23
  • Avengers vol. 2 #1-13
  • Avengers #1-4, 10-84 Annual ’98
  • Avengers: Earth’s Mightiest Heroes #1-8
  • Avengers: Earth’s Mightiest Heroes vol. 2 #1-8
  • The Ultimates #1-13
  • The Ultimates 2 #1-13
  • The Ultimates 3 #1-5
  • Avengers:West Coast #48-102, Annual #4-8
  • Marvel Feature #4-10
  • Mighty Avengers #20-present
  • Iron Man Vol. 1 #44
  • West Coast Avengers vol. 2 #1-47, Annual #1-2
  • Secret Invasion:Requiem

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ William Keck (2008-06-22). “Here come Marvel’s ‘Avengers,’ and Stan Lee, Joe Simon weigh in”. USA Today. www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/2008-06-22-marvel-magic_N.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-06.
  2. ^ Marvel Feature #4-10 (July 1972 – July 1973)
  3. ^ Tales to Astonish #27 (Jan. 1962)
  4. ^ Tales to Astonish #35 (Sept. 1962)
  5. ^ Tales To Astonish #44 (June 1963)
  6. ^ Tales To Astonish #63 (Jan. 1965)
  7. ^ The Avengers #1 (Sept. 1963)
  8. ^ Tales to Astonish #49 (Nov. 1963)
  9. ^ The Avengers #28 (May 1966)
  10. ^ a b Miniseries Avengers Forever #1-12 (Dec. 1998 – Feb. 2000)
  11. ^ The Avengers #28-35 (May. – Dec. 1966)
  12. ^ The Avengers #54 (July 1968)
  13. ^ The Avengers #59 (Dec. 1968)
  14. ^ The Avengers #60 (Jan. 1968)
  15. ^ The Avengers #90 (July 1971)
  16. ^ The Avengers #93 (Sept. 1971)
  17. ^ Giant-Size Defenders #4 (May 1975) and Defenders #23-25 (May-July 1975),
  18. ^ Avengers #160 (June 1977)
  19. ^ Avengers #181 (March 1979)
  20. ^ The Avengers #212 – 213 (Oct. – Nov. 1981)
  21. ^ The Avengers #214 (Dec. 1981)
  22. ^ Avengers #217 (March 1982)
  23. ^ Avengers #224 (Oct. 1982)
  24. ^ The Avengers #228-230 (Feb. – April 1983)
  25. ^ West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #1 (October 1985)
  26. ^ West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #21 (June 1987)
  27. ^ The Avengers #368 (Nov. 1993)
  28. ^ West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #16 (January 1987)
  29. ^ West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #17 (February 1987)
  30. ^ The Avengers #242 (April 1984)
  31. ^ West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #42 (March 1989)
  32. ^ The Avengers vol. 2, #1-13 (Nov. 1996 – Nov. 1997)
  33. ^ The Avengers vol. 3, #4 (May 1998)
  34. ^ Avengers/Squadron Supreme Annual ’98 (Sept. 1998)
  35. ^ The Avengers vol. 3, #19-22 (Aug.-Oct. 1999)
  36. ^ The Avengers vol. 3, #41-55 (June 2001 – Aug. 2002), Avengers Annual 2001 (Sept. 2001)
  37. ^ The Avengers Annual 2001 (Sept. 2001)
  38. ^ The Avengers: Finale (Nov. 2004)
  39. ^ Mighty Avengers #15 (Aug. 2008)
  40. ^ Beyond! #1-6 (2006)
  41. ^ Civil War #4 (Oct. 2006)
  42. ^ Civil War #6 (Dec. 2006)
  43. ^ a b Avengers: The Initiative #14 (Aug. 2008)
  44. ^ The Avengers: The Initiative #2 (June 2007)
  45. ^ The Avengers: The Initiative #8 (Feb. 2008)
  46. ^ The Avengers: The Initiative #12 (June 2008)
  47. ^ Avengers: The Initiative #19 (Jan. 2009)
  48. ^ Secret Invasion #8 (Dec. 2008)
  49. ^ Secret Invasion: Requiem (2009)
  50. ^ Mighty Avengers #21 (Feb. 2009)
  51. ^ Mighty Avengers #23 (May 2009)
  52. ^ Earth X #0-12 (March 1999 – April 2000)
  53. ^ Fantastic Four:The End #1-6 (Jan.-June 2007)
  54. ^ Avengers Next #1-5 (Jan.-March 2007; biweekly)
  55. ^ Marvel Zombies (Dec. 2005 – April 2006 & Oct. 2007 – Feb. 2008)
  56. ^ Ultimates #1-13 (March 2002 – April 2004)
  57. ^ Ultimates 2 No. 6
  58. ^ Ultimates 2 #7 (Sept. 2005)
  59. ^ Ultimates vol. 3 #5 (June 2008)
  60. ^ Jessica Barnes (2008-06-26). “Edgar Wright Talks ‘Ant-Man'”. Cinematical. www.cinematical.com/2008/06/26/edgar-wright-talks-ant-man/. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.

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