White Queen / Emma Frost

Emma Frost

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Emma Frost
200px Emma Frost in current costume White Queen / Emma Frost
Art by Andy Park
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Uncanny X-Men #129 (January 1980)
Created by Chris Claremont
John Byrne
In story information
Alter ego Emma Grace Frost
Species Human Mutant
Team affiliations Hellfire Club
Xavier Institute
The 198
Frost International
Generation X
Notable aliases White Queen
Abilities Telepathy
Indestructible diamond form

Emma Frost is a fictional character that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129 (vol. 1, January 1980), and was created by writer Chris Claremont and artist/co-writer John Byrne. An urbane, mutant telepath with a well-noted dry wit[1] initially known as the White Queen (complete with revealing white attire for which she is known), Frost has changed from one of the X-Men’s more infamous foes to one of their most prominent members. The character was named IGN Comic’s “Hottest Comic Book Babe” in 2005[2], ranked #21 on IGN Comic’s “Top 25 X-Men” in 2006[3] and took 69th place on Wizard’s 200 Greatest Characters of All Time List in 2008[4] ranking ahead of other X-Men with more extensive histories.


  • 1 Publication history
    • 1.1 Background explored
  • 2 Fictional character biography
    • 2.1 White Queen of the Hellfire Club
    • 2.2 Generation X
    • 2.3 Joining and leading the X-Men
    • 2.4 Messiah Complex
    • 2.5 Divided We Stand
    • 2.6 Secret Invasion
  • 3 Powers and abilities
  • 4 Other versions
  • 5 In other media
    • 5.1 Video games
    • 5.2 Animation
    • 5.3 Films
    • 5.4 Toys
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Publication history

From her initial appearance as the White Queen of the Hellfire Club, Frost appeared as a X-Men villain over the years. She frequently appeared in Uncanny X-Men and the original volume of the New Mutants alongside her Hellions.

In March 1986, Tom DeFalco, Mary Wilshire, and Stevie Leialoha were the creative team for the four issue Firestar mini-series, where Emma predominantly appeared alongside her Hellions. This series showcased Frost as the main villain as she attempted to turn the Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends star Angelica Jones into her own personal weapon.

After recovering from a coma and aiming to redeem herself upon the knowledge that her Hellions had been slaughtered, Frost played a pivotal role in the Phalanx Covenant which saw her team up with Banshee, Jubilee, and Sabretooth in an attempt to save the next generation of mutants. This led to her becoming a main character of the spin-off series Generation X which began in November 1994 under the creative eyes of Scott Lobdell, Chris Bachalo, and Mark Buckingham. The series ended after over 75 issues (and several one-shots and mini-series) with Brian Wood, Ron Lim, Sandu Florea, and Randy Elliott ending the series. During the -1 issue, it is revealed that Emma was homeless and had met Banshee, who was working for the NYPD and an amnesiac Dark Beast from the Age of Apocalypse. Her sisters were also introduced during this series as well as a brief (and possibly fabricated) glimpse into her past.

After the series ended and all the X-Titles were revamped, Frost appeared in New X-Men as a teacher for the mutant population of Genosha, which was then controlled by Magneto. After a Sentinel strike leveled the island nation, the X-Men found Frost amidst the rubble with a new secondary mutation which hardened her skin to a diamond-like density. Subsequently, Frost joined the X-Men. This would lead to her instigating an affair with fellow X-Man Cyclops, who was having marital difficulties with Jean Grey.

Using Frost as a character was suggested to writer Grant Morrison on his website by a fan. While writer Grant Morrison initially had no plans to use her, the death of the character Colossus left Morrison with an opening.[5] He created Emma’s secondary mutation–a super strong diamond form–as a replacement for Colossus’ powers and added her to the cast.[6]

160px Emma Frost   1 White Queen / Emma Frost

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Emma Frost #1 (August 2003). Cover by Greg Horn.

In August 2003, writer Karl Bollers penned an ongoing series showcasing her origins titled Emma Frost. The series, which lasted for 18 issues, began during her days as a private school student and ended before her days as a Hellfire Club member. It introduced her father Winston as well as her brother Christian, also exploring the early days of her two sisters Adrienne and Cordelia.

Under Joss Whedon and John Cassaday, Emma was featured in the third volume of Astonishing X-Men. She has been a major character in the on-going series, specifically during its third arc, Torn, in which the authenticity of her allegiance to the X-Men is explored. She also frequently makes guest appearances in other Marvel titles, New X-Men in particular. The reduced presence of X-Men founder and former headmaster Charles Xavier in recent years has intensified her importance as one of Marvel’s foremost telepaths.

Background explored

In a flashback story told by Frost herself in Generation X #24, Frost details a time she spent in a mental institution after being sent there by her parents. However, the now cancelled Emma Frost series depicted Frost’s early years. The series was supposed to cover Frost’s life from high school until her first appearance as the White Queen, however, it was cancelled at issue #18. Generation X #-1 showed the first meeting of Emma Frost, Banshee and the Dark Beast, seems to take place after the series.

In X-Men: Deadly Genesis, Frost is shown after the events of Generation X #-1 as a stripper at the Hellfire Club. Frost is approached by Professor X and Moira MacTaggert to join a new team of X-Men along with other characters introduced in the series. The task proves harder than first anticipated and Xavier is met with great resistance from Frost. The event is then mentally erased from everyone’s minds by Xavier.

Fictional character biography

Emma Frost was born in Boston, Massachusetts to the wealthy Winston and Hazel Frost; she is the second of three daughters and also had an older brother, Christian. Winston is cold, ruthless, and domineering, often imposing impossibly high standards on his children, while Hazel abuses prescription drugs to cope with the tensions of her household. Thus, Emma obtains no emotional support from her parents or her sisters Adrienne and Cordelia, but gets along with her homosexual brother Christian. Her father chooses her to carry on his fortune, but after seeing her father betray her trust and commit Christian to a mental institution following a suicide attempt, Emma rejects his offer and decided to make her own way.[7]

After a period of homelessness, Emma meets and falls in love with a young man named Troy, who agrees to let Emma live with him. She learns that he owes a large amount of money to a local mobster named Lucien. In order to save Troy’s life, Emma agrees to participate in a fake kidnapping scheme in an attempt to extort the remainder of Troy’s debt from her father. However, Winston refuses to pay the ransom, and Troy is killed while valiantly attempting to save Emma from an enraged Lucien. After disposing of Troy’s corpse, Lucien’s thugs handcuff Emma to a pipe and seal her mouth shut with duct tape, intending to kill her later. Adrienne releases Lucien’s ransom video to the media, forcing Winston to pay for Emma’s safe release. Not content with the money, Lucien still decides to kill her, but by using her powers, Emma turns the thugs against one another and then forces the remaining henchman to free her. Emma takes the ransom money and enrolled in a university,[8] only later auditioning as a dancer for the Hellfire Club,[9] an underground elite society that later was usurped into mutant control with her help by Sebastian Shaw.[10]

180px Whitequeenbolton White Queen / Emma Frost

magnify clip White Queen / Emma Frost

Emma in her original and most recognized look as the White Queen of the Hellfire Club. Art by John Bolton.

White Queen of the Hellfire Club

Emma Frost becomes the White Queen of the Hellfire Club. Frost runs Massachusetts Academy, a school for mutants which serves as a counterpoint to Charles Xavier’s School for Gifted Youngsters, recruiting young mutants competitively with Xavier, using a bug planted in Cerebro. Frost and the club’s agents later capture several members of the X-Men, including Kitty Pryde and Phoenix (then masquerading as Jean Grey). Frost engages Phoenix in a psychic battle and is overpowered and on the verge of being killed. Frost launches a last-minute attack that led the X-Men to believe she had committed suicide,[11] though in truth she was comatose and recovering from Phoenix’s attack under the care of Sebastian Shaw.[12] In another encounter with the Hellfire Club, Frost telepathically forces Kitty Pryde’s parents to transfer her from Xavier’s to the Massachusetts Academy. She then switches minds with Storm in order to defeat the X-Men from within their own ranks, but the process is soon reversed.[13] During her time with the Hellfire Club, Frost continues to run the Massachusetts Academy. Frost’s trainees becomes the super-villain team known as the Hellions. When the Hellion’s rival team, Xavier’s New Mutants, are killed and resurrected by Beyonder, they are left traumatized and withdrawn and Frost offers her assistance in telepathically restoring them to their former selves.[14] When the time traveling mutant Trevor Fitzroy unleashes the mutant-hunting robots called the Sentinels on Emma Frost and the Hellions, Emma places herself in a psychic coma in order to survive the ordeal and nearly all of her students are killed.[15] Later, she awakes in the Xavier Academy and possesses the body of Iceman and escapes. When she discovers the deaths of her students, Professor Xavier is able to coax a devastated Emma Frost back into her own body.[16]

Generation X

Emma Frost later team up with the X-Men Banshee, Jubilee, as well as Sabretooth, and Synch, to defeat the Phalanx, and rescues a select group of teenage mutants who becomes a superhero team known as Generation X and studies at Emma Frost and Banshee’s Massachusetts Academy.[17] After Frost’s business ventures takes a bad turn, she turns for help to her estranged sister Adrienne, who is a psychometrist and offers financial assistance but demands to be co-headmistress of the school in return.[18] Emma’s sister secretly plots against her and plants a bomb at the school, which kills Generation X member Synch.[19] Frost tracks down and murders Adrienne[20] and then returns to the Academy, growing increasingly distant from her students in an effort to hide her crime. Monet comes to the realization that Emma murdered her sister and informs other students that they can no longer trust her. This, combined with Banshee’s increasing depression and drunkenness following the death of his long-time lover Moira MacTaggert, leads the students to leave, disbanding Generation X.[21]

Joining and leading the X-Men

185px Newxhel001 White Queen / Emma Frost

magnify clip White Queen / Emma Frost

Emma with her new team of Hellions. Art by Clayton Henry

Afterwards, Emma travels to the mutant haven island of Genosha where she runs and teaches at a mutant school until a genocidal Sentinel attack killed most of the island’s population including all of her students; Emma survives due to the sudden manifestation of her secondary mutation: the power to transform herself into a flexible, near-invulnerable, diamond-like substance. Emma then joins the X-Men, who had rescued her from Genosha, and takes on a teaching position after the Xavier Institute reforms into a regular school.[22] She starts to look after and train a group of telepathic quintuplets, the Stepford Cuckoos, who quickly becomes her prized pupils. Frost and the Cuckoos prove themselves when they help fight and defeat Charles Xavier’s evil twin sister Cassandra Nova. As a member of the X-Men, Frost begins a psychic and non-physical sexual relationship with Cyclops, who had become distant from his wife Jean Grey as a result of his temporary physical and mental merger with the ancient mutant Apocalypse, and Grey’s “remanifestation” of the Phoenix Force added to the disconnection. These psychic meetings begin in the form of therapy,[23] but soon turn into a telepathic romantic affair.[24]

While quelling a riot at the school, one of the Stepford Cuckoos, Sophie, is killed and the others leave Emma, blaming her for the death and attempts to get revenge by telepathically contacting Jean Grey about Emma’s and Cyclops’ psychic affair.[25] In the aftermath of the riot, Jean Grey catches Frost and Summers in bed together in their minds, and in rage, unleashes her re-ignited Phoenix powers, and psychically humiliates Frost. Afterwards, Emma is found physically shattered in her diamond form[26], and Jean Grey, using her increasingly growing Phoenix powers, reassembles Frost’s body back together, acknowledging that Emma has genuinely fallen in love with Scott. Revived, Emma is able to name her attempted murderer – Esme of the Stepford Cuckoos, who had mind controlled fellow student Angel Salvadore into shooting Frost in her single flaw with a diamond bullet, under the direction of Xorn/Magneto.[27]

Jean is later killed by Xorn, and a guilt ridden Cyclops is unable to move on with his life and with Emma, which results in a dystopian alternate future, that is prevented by Jean Grey, reborn as the White Phoenix of the Crown, by urging Cyclops to start a new life with Emma.[28] Despite the criticism from their teammates and family members, Cyclops and Emma Frost becomes lovers, and the two takes over the school after Professor Xavier steps down[29]; Emma becomes co-headmistress with Cyclops and adviser to a new team of Hellions.[30] She develops a antagonistic relationship with fellow teacher Kitty Pryde[31] and the daughter of Jean Grey and Cyclops, Rachel Grey, who was furious at her father for starting a relationship with Emma immediately after Jean’s death. However, the two seemingly reached a truce, Emma offering to help Rachel hone her telepathic abilities.[32]

Following Decimation, the student population has gone drastically down, and Emma, without consulting Cyclops, decides to revamp the entire workings of the school.[33]

During X-Men: Phoenix – Warsong, it is revealed that Emma’s ova are the genetic templates used to clone thousands of identical female telepaths, five of which would become the Stepford Cuckoos. The encapsulated offspring, as well as Celeste Cuckoo, begin to refer to Frost as “mother” – a title whose usage she later accepts. In the end, the Phoenix (inhabiting the body of Celeste Cuckoo) destroys the thousands of additional clones, and Emma, pained by the loss of her cloned children, declares revenge against the Phoenix.

In a conversation with Iron Man, Frost announces that the Xavier Institute and the X-Men would not support the Superhuman Registration Act and remain neutral, as she fears that the registration of mutants would put them in more danger.[34]

The question of Emma’s “true loyalties” are brought into focus as Emma abandoned the team during a fight to confer with a shadowy figure, revealed to be one of a group of four individuals watching from the shadows. The group contained Sebastian Shaw, Cassandra Nova, Negasonic Teenage Warhead, and a cloaked figure called Perfection, who discussed among themselves Emma’s impending betrayal of the team.[35] Emma’s survival of the destruction of Genosha was actually due to Cassandra Nova creating Emma’s secondary mutation as part of a scheme to infiltrate the X-Men as a sleeper agent, Nova having erased the memory of their encounter and only restoring it recently. Using this and other elements of Emma’s consciousness, Emma created physical manifestations of Cassandra in her human form, Sebastian Shaw, Emma’s younger evil self in the Hellfire club calling itself “Perfection”, and Negasonic Teenage Warhead, her former student in Genosha. First, she began using her telepathy on Cyclops to appear as Phoenix, trying to reveal the lack of control he had over his optic blasts. Perfection noted that Emma’s feelings for Summers were genuine, however. Emma’s telepathy discovers that when Scott fell out of a plane with his younger brother Havok, Scott placed a deep mental block in his mind which prevented the controlled use of his powers. Encouraged by Emma, Scott revisited that moment in his life and reversed the decision. It is further revealed that Ellie, Shaw and Perfection were actually psionic projections created by Emma under Cassandra’s influence. Cassandra Nova had placed a portion of her mind in Emma’s before being trapped in the body of Stuff.[36]

With Cyclops out of the way, Frost/Nova and the physical manifestations calling themselves the “Hellfire Club”, assault the X-Mansion, incapacitating every X-Man, with the exception of Shadowcat. Kitty manages to elude capture, and, fulfilling the role Emma asked her to in the beginning of the series, manages to capture the former White Queen. However, Kitty was eventually tricked by Nova/Emma/”Perfection” into helping Emma/Nova/”Perfection” retrieve the “Stuff” body containing the rest of Nova. A depowered Cyclops with the help of Blindfold, and Hisako Ichiki, were able to defeat the “Hellfire Club” by figuring out they were fake, while Emma herself tried to get Kitty to shoot her in order to block Cassandra’s escape, but was stopped by Cyclops. Undeterred, Nova then attempted to transfer her mind into Hisako. The ending was interrupted as everyone present was teleported away by S.W.O.R.D. onto their ship which was headed towards the Breakworld.

Emma, along with Cyclops, Colossus, Wolverine, Beast, Shadowcat, Hisako, Ord, and Danger, were taken to deep space by S.W.O.R.D. and Agent Brand. The psychics on the S.W.O.R.D. ship did not detect Cassandra Nova in Emma’s shattered psyche, effectively proving Emma’s loyalty to the X-Men by her refusal to allow Nova into Hisako. Though emotionally wounded, Emma recovered fast enough to be present for the team’s departure to the Breakworld. Separated, Emma, Scott, Beast, and Agent Brand discovered the temple of Attur-Hei (“The Palace of the Corpse.”) Joined by teammates Wolverine and Hisako (who adopted the code-name “Armor”), Emma conceded to Agent Brand’s plan of separation. She and Scott left Attur-Hei on a single S.W.O.R.D. armed jet to rendezvous with the rest of the S.W.O.R.D. operatives on the Breakworld.

While flying, several Breakworld fighter jets approached, attempting to knock Emma and Scott out of the air. The couple successfully repelled the Breakworld onslaught, exchanging heated words in the process. Amidst Emma’s protestations that Scott was “acting as though [he knew] what [she’s] been through,” he finally professed his true love for Emma. Stunned, Emma could barely speak, except to utter an apology. Before her reasons behind apologizing were discussed, Scott noticed a blip on their radar. Danger appeared, utterly destroying the S.W.O.R.D. cruiser. Switching to diamond form in the nick of time, Emma was spared, however Scott was mortally injured. Cradling an injured Scott in her arms, Emma shed a tear. As the Danger room entity approached, Emma made a request of the machine. She asked that Danger kill her, and that ‘she’ do so quickly.

However, this turns out to be another one of Emma’s ‘lessons’ this time aimed at Danger, who in truth seems incapable of killing the X-Men due to her core programing. Emma offers Danger a deal in exchange for her help with the X-Men’s mission. As X-Men proceed with their planned attack Breakworld weapon’s installation, they are surrounded by Breakworld ships and Scott is forced to take a single battle cruiser to draw attention from the main team, being shot down and apparently dying in the process (with Emma feeling Scott’s life flash before his eyes).

Scott is resurrected by their enemies, just as Colossus had been. It turns out Cyclops’ sacrifice was all part of a master plan by the team undetected by way of Frost’s telepathy in order to distract their opponents so the rest of the team can carry out their own duties without as much difficulty.

The arc concludes with Kitty trapped in the bullet and the team trying to find various ways to save the Earth and save Kitty. As the bullet heads toward Earth, Emma keeps in telepathic contact with Kitty, trying to reassure her, though Kitty becomes more and more certain that she will not make it out unharmed or alive. As it becomes clear that all other options have run out, Emma states that she never wanted something like this to happen and she and Kitty come to an understanding. Emma calls Kitty “astonishing” before Kitty sacrifices herself, phasing the bullet through Earth. In the aftermath, the X-Men are uncertain of Kitty’s fate, believing her to either be dead or at least phased into part of the runaway bullet. Emma is devastated.

Messiah Complex

Emma is part of the team that investigates the detection of a new mutant in Alaska. She also defends the X-Men from the Marauders and the telepathy of Sinister and Exodus. Emma is last seen with Cyclops’s team of X-Men looking for Cable and then tracking down the Marauders with the Cuckoos. Later when X-Force arrives to the Marauders hideout, Emma takes out Harpoon, and during the final battle on Muir Island, she faces off Exodus, distracting him in a telepathic duel long enough for Dust to enter his body and scour his lungs with her sand form, incapacitating him.

Divided We Stand

After the events of the Messiah Complex, Emma goes on a vacation with Cyclops to the Savage Land; there, they are contacted by Archangel asking them for assistance in San Francisco. Upon arriving the couple discovers that a powerful force Martinique Jason has made the citizens of the city and the AWOL X-Men; believe that they are now living in the 1960s.

Secret Invasion

Secret Invasion

Emma Frost is among the heroes emerging from the crashed Skrull ship in Secret Invasion #1. She appears in a costume similar to the one she wore when she first appeared as a member of the Hellfire Club. While the group of emerging heroes believe themselves to be the real ones, it is unknown if this is true, or just another Skrull ploy. [37]

Powers and abilities

Emma Frost is a metamorph capable of accessing enormous[38][39][40] telepathic abilities. Later, she gained a “secondary mutation” which allows her to transform to an organic diamond form with enhanced strength and durability at the cost of her telepathy.

Since her introduction, Frost has displayed the telepathic standards of broadcasting and receiving thoughts, mind control, altering perceptions and memories, offensive blasts of psionic energy, astral projection, etc. Frost is also very adept at performing ‘psychic surgery’: the utilization of pin-pointed psionic energy to exert absolute control over individual brain functions such that the physical form can be manipulated (i.e., injuries healed, disabilities repaired, the nervous system, etc), a subskill of telepathy unusual for even the most powerful of telepaths, but one that Emma is keen to utilize whenever the occasion benefits her. Frost’s incredible power and conniving ways are evident in her first appearance whereby she manages to capture and sedate Charles Xavier.[41][42][43] Frost has been cited as a “World-class telepath[44] and a “Psi of the Highest Order”[45], capable of extraordinary telepathic feats.[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]

During the massacre of over 16 million mutants in Genosha, Frost developed a secondary mutation: the ability to transform herself into a perfectly smooth, flexible, translucent diamond form.[62] Her abilities have been inconsistent in this form. Although initially only her skin turns into diamond, she was shattered by a diamond bullet, indicating that her entire body turns into organic diamond. Frost is nearly impervious to all forms of physical damage and can use her indestructible body to support incredible amounts of weight, though different writers have shown varying accounts of her strength. Her diamond form also has a physical flaw, which, if exploited, can and has caused her to shatter. Though the exact location of the flaw in her diamond body has not been stated outright, several clues point to it being located in her face, an ironic reference to her famed vanity.[63]

Frost’s full range of abilities between her diamond state and regular form have also been inconsistent[64][65]; however recent occurrences[66][67] reflect Morrison’s initial depiction of her powers: that Frost cannot access her psychic powers in diamond form and vice versa. Also, Emma does not fatigue and has no need for water or food while she stays in her diamond form.[64]. Her diamond form makes her “impervious to cold[68] and resistant to heat.[69][70][71] Depictions have also stated that Emma has at least some degree of telepathic immunity while in diamond form, though this ability has been depicted inconsistently as well.[72][73].

Throughout the years, it has been hinted that Frost is also a latent telekinetic. To save herself from Trevor Fitzroy, Jean Grey’s displaced psyche was able to use Frost’s brain to generate a strong telekinetic force-field and fly while it inhabited the White Queen’s body.[74] During the Onslaught Saga Frost unwittingly levitated several kitchen utensils while having a bad dream. [75] When the mutant known as Synch “synched” with Frosts powers, he was able to use them to levitate several objects and individuals in the room. This phenomenon was referred to as telekinesis and credited to Frost’s psi powers. [76]

She is highly skilled at creating electronic devices that amplify/block/engage psionic powers, as well as exploiting flaws in most electronic equipment.[41][42][43][77][78][79]

Other versions

In addition to her mainstream incarnation, Emma Frost has been depicted in other fictional universes. In the Age of Apocalypse storyline, Emma Frost never joined the Hellfire Club and is a member of the Human High Council. Also, in this reality, Emma Frost was in love with Forge and they had a brief affair afterwards. In the Ultimate Marvel series, Emma Frost is a former student, and girlfriend, of Professor Charles Xavier; in charge of the Academy of Tomorrow and part of the Hellfire Club that is trying to separate the Phoenix from Jean Grey. This version of Emma Frost is pacifistic, non-telepathic, and dresses much more conservatively than her mainstream counterpart.

In other media

Video games

Emma Frost is a boss character in the video games, X-Men (1989) for NES; X-Men: Madness in Murderworld (1989); Konami’s X-Men (1992); is a playable character in X-Men Legends (2004) and is a non-player character in the sequel X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse (2005). In Marvel: Ultimate Alliance, Emma is referred to off screen and later appears in a cut scene as one of the heroes who was defeated by Dr. Doom.


Emma Frost appears in the Pryde of the X-Men (1989) animated television pilot; is briefly featured in episodes of X-Men: The Animated Series during the Dark Phoenix saga; and is seen in press materials and trailers for the up-coming Wolverine and the X-Men (2008) animated series.


Emma Frost appears in a 1996 live-action Generation X television movie, portrayed by Finola Hughes. When Bryan Singer was still slated to direct X-Men: The Last Stand (2006), the role of Emma Frost was intended for Sigourney Weaver.[80] After Singer left the project in favor of making Superman Returns, the character was dropped completely. Hugh Jackman revealed in an interview that Emma will appear in X-Men Origins: Wolverine[citation needed]. An unknown actress was seen in footage showed at the 2008 San Diego Comic Con using an ability similar to Emma’s diamond form transformation.


Toy Biz produced an Emma Frost action figure in their Generation X series of toys. Marvel Legends also released an Emma Frost figure that features a right arm and leg of Annihilus.


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